Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R. et al. Coupled human and natural systems: The evolution and applications of an integrated framework. Ambio (2021).
In our paper “Coupled Human and Natural Systems”(Liu et al. 2007), we developed a timely, theoretical, and practical foundation for research on Coupled Human And Natural Systems (CHANS). The science of CHANS builds upon, but goes beyond previous research that linked humans and ecosystems (eg, ecological anthropology, environmental geography, human ecology). CHANS science uses a holistic perspective to integrate patterns and processes that connect human and natural systems, as well as within-scale and cross-scale interactions and feedbacks between human and natural components of such systems (Fig. 1). Such an integrated framework is needed to understand the increased complexity of the Anthropocene and develop innovative solutions to unprecedented global challenges.