Zhao, T. L., Gong, S. L., Zhang, X. Y., Blanchet, J. P., McKendry, I. G., & Zhou, Z. J. (2006). A simulated climatology of Asian dust aerosol and its trans-Pacific transport. Part I: Mean climate and validation. Journal of Climate, 19(1), 88-103.
The Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model (NARCM) was used to construct a 44-yr climatology of spring Asian dust aerosol emission, column loading, deposition, trans-Pacific transport routes, and budgets during 1960–2003. Comparisons with available ground dust observations and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) measurements verified that NARCM captured most of the climatological characteristics of the spatial and temporal distributions, as well as the interannual and daily variations of Asian dust aerosol during those 44 yr. Results demonstrated again that the deserts in Mongolia and in western and northern China (mainly the Taklimakan and Badain Juran, respectively) were the major sources of Asian dust aerosol in East Asia. The dust storms in spring occurred most frequently from early April to early May with a daily averaged dust emission (diameter d < 41 μm) of 1.58 Mt in April and 1.36 Mt in May. Asian dust aerosol contributed most of the dust aerosol loading in the troposphere over the midlatitude regions from East Asia to western North America during springtime. Climatologically, dry deposition was a dominant dust removal process near the source areas, while the removal of dust particles by precipitation was the major process over the trans-Pacific transport pathway (where wet deposition exceeded dry deposition up to a factor of 20). The regional transport of Asian dust aerosol over the Asian subcontinent was entrained to an elevation of <3 km. The frontal cyclone in Mongolia and northern China uplifted dust aerosol in the free troposphere for trans-Pacific transport. Trans-Pacific dust transport peaked between 3 and 10 km in the troposphere along a zonal transport axis around 40°N. Based on the 44-yr-averaged dust budgets for the modeling domain from East Asia to western North America, it was estimated that of the average spring dust aerosol (diameter d < 41 μm) emission of ∼120 Mt from Asian source regions, about 51% was redeposited onto the source regions, 21% was deposited onto nondesert regions within the Asian subcontinent, and 26% was exported from the Asian subcontinent to the Pacific Ocean. In total, 16% of Asian dust aerosol emission was deposited into the North Pacific, while ∼3% of Asian dust aerosol was carried to the North American continent via trans-Pacific transport.